OK. A minute goes by without a hit. The ref gives a P-card to one or both fencers. Can we come up with a plausible scenario where one fencer is judged willing to fence and the other unwilling? Wouldn't require a highly subjective ruling from the ref? From the FIE FAQ: FAQ: for U2F: Q2. Is there only one definition for U2F? • YES, the definition is one minute of fencing without a hit or without a hit scored off the target. In order to win a bout, which should be the goal, a fencer should score hits... Q3. What does “When one or both fencers make clear their unwillingness to fight” mean? • The rule defines it as meaning that there has been one minute without a hit or without a hit scored off the target.