USFA rule t.82.3b states "Any person who, for any reason, threatens or insults an official commits an offense of the 4th group and is penalized according to article t.119." This is generally accepted to include accusing the referee of cheating. A 4th group penalty is a black card on the first offense. My question then is: are there any other penalties a ref could give according USFA rulebook after being insulted/accused of cheating? Sometimes a ref wants to convey that they are unhappy with the unsportsmanlike comment made by the fencer and so would like to apply at least a yellow card if not a group 3 red card (recall a second group 3 penalty is a black card). A stern G3R accompanied by a comment of "do it again and you're out" I'm told gets the job done (I've never actually given a G3R myself). I've seen both yellows and reds given in these instances, but I'm not actually sure they're justified under the rules. For group 1 penalties, I guess you might argue "delaying the bout" or "refusal to obey" are legit grounds, but tenuous. For group 3, it doesn't seem "disturbing order" applies here if it's a comment made directly to the ref (as opposed to a loud swear as I've seen receive a G3R). The group 3 I'd like to apply is "anti-sporting behavior" but that seems to only apply to a spectator (and gives them a yellow card for first offense, black for second, since spectators can't get red cards). No fencer will ever appeal their yellow or red since they know they're getting a break from a black card, but still curious as if this situation ever comes up, I'd like to be able to apply a yellow or red card to de-escalate rather than escalate with a black card while still following the rules.